The following article appeared originally in # 1(12), 2(13), i 3(14) 1996 of the quarterly "Watra", which is published in Gorlice, Poland by "Zarzad Glowny Zjednoczenia Lemkow w Polsce", ul. Hellera 20/19, 38-300 Gorlice, tel./fax 48-18-521239

The following is an article which is a review by Dr.Roscislaw Zerelik from the Institute of History at Wroclaw University regarding the doctoral work of Dr.Kazimierz Pudlo, "Lemkos",written at the Institute of Political Science at Wroclaw University and published in the ethnographic works of the Polish Ethnological Society in 1987.
We want to direct the attention of our esteemed readers to the time period in which this work was written, a period when censorship was active and was a serious interference.
This very subject matter in that period of police-party dictatorship, which regarded admitted problems in the Polish People's Republic as its very own "taboo" (the criminal, punitive pacification and deportations during "Akcja Wisla" in 1947), apparently alarmed the corresponding Security Service, which was beginning its activities. This threat had to have been reflected in the scope and means of approaching the series of problems discussed in this work.
During the years 1982-1989 the appropriate departments of the Security Service instigated provocations within the Ukrainian national minority in Poland; initiating, supporting and disseminating of the idea of Lemko separatism from the Ukrainian nation. A replay of the pre-1939 Polish,and the later Nazi scheme to create a new "Lemko nation."
Here we should make reference to "Ukrainian Population in Poland -Past and Present,"(Theses), written with that goal in mind by the notorious "Ukrainophobe", Edward Prus. It was commissioned and written confidentially per instructions of the Provincial Office of the Department of Internal Affairs in Legnica. Fifty copies were printed in March of 1985.
University academic centers in Poland, [Krakow, Wroclaw and Lublin] were flooding the students with themes for theses concerning the problems of the Lemko ethnographic group of the Ukrainian nation, but from the point of view of accentuating the differences which distinguish Lemkos from other Ukrainian ethnographic groups.
Practically the only serious contemporary work with a Lemko subject matteris the work by Dr. K. Pudlo, which however, is still not free from errors caused by the above mentioned circumstances.
The publication offered to the readers here by R. Zerelik has, as its main intention, to better acquaint students of the subject matter (students who are writing theses), especially by using various works written by academicians from Poznan University regarding the criminal "AkcjaWisla", and the Ukrainian Lemko ethnographic group, especially after their punitive displacement to the northern and western territories of Poland.
The matter is worth pondering all the more since at the academic session in Krakow, organized by the East European Commission of the Polish Academy of Sciences on the theme - "Lemkos and Contemporary Polish Lemko Studies", which took place from June 21-22, 1995, young academics especially reacted in a sharply critical manner to the writings of Prof. Andrzej Kwilecki at Poznan University.
They were also critical in their evaluation of Dr. K. Pudlo, though they considered the circumstances under which he wrote his work.

Roscislaw Zerelik: "A Few Observations About the Lemkos" ( In conjunction with the book by Kazimierz Pudlo "Lemkowie. Process wrastania w srodowisko Dolnego Slaska 1947-1985" , Prace i materialy etnograficzne, t. XVIII, Wroclaw 1987 (The Lemkos. The Process of Assimilation in Lower Silesia 1947-1985. Works and Ethnographic Materials." Wroclaw 1987. 197 pages. 31 illustrations). 1

1. In the last few years several interesting works concerning the language and culture of the Lemkos have been published. 2

2. It was with due interest, therefore, that the appearance of the next book dedicated to this neglected topic was met. 3

3. The author of which had already distinguished himself several times as a fine expert on the problems of minority groups, including Lemkos,a Ukrainian ethnographic group. 4

4. Besides an answer to the question posed in the work's title, an explanation, though in abbreviated form, should be expected as to the factual reasons for the resettlement of the Lemkos to the northern and western regions of Poland. I'll take issue with the author's position on this subject and others below.

The territorial boundaries used in the work in question raise doubts, especially since Kazimierz Pudlo chose the years 1947-1985 as the chronological parameters for his study, a time period in which the administrative borders of the Lower Silesian provinces had changed several times. Lower Silesia as a geographical entity is much larger than Wroclaw province was (as the borders were set July 6, 1950 and chosen by the author). Present day Lower Silesia consists of: Wroclaw, Legnica, Walbrzych and Jelenia Gora provinces, as well as a part of Zielona Gora and Opole provinces. Equating Lower Silesia with the city of Wroclaw and Wroclaw province (as it existed in 1950) leads not only to a reduction in size of the territory of the region, but most of all to a misrepresentation of the actual extent of Lemko settlement in Lower Silesia. As the author stresses (page 7), in 1950 a basic process of settlement was first adopted for non-Polish populations in this region. It follows, therefore, that the resettlement of Lemkos was carried out during a time when the area of Wroclaw province (before 1950) coincided almost completely with the territory of Lower Silesia. 5 The acceptance of that area shows that Glogow, Kozuchow, Szprotawa, Namyslow and Zagan counties were left out of the analysis, however, and in some of these counties Lemko settlement took on an especially intensive character. During the administrative reform of 1975 Glogow county was attached to the newly resurrected province of Legnica.
Reading the work of K. Pudlo also may cause one to have certain reservations concerning the use of archival materials. The impression is given that the author completed his archival research in 1975. This means he did not take into consideration the changes in terminology which took place in Polish archives during the course of recent years. 6 Also, the citing of groups of materials in the national archives in Wroclaw is incorrect. From Pudlo's work we don't find out which grouping he made use of in any given archive. A less experienced researcher would have had trouble uncovering items used by him, among 500 groups of documents created by different institutions since 1945. (page 33, footnote 17).
In a given instance the following source is referred to: (Wroclaw Provincial Office), Resettlement Dept (9). The actual notation should go like this: National Archives, Wroclaw, Wroclaw Provincial Office, signet 9/270. One could also say that the copying of titles of archival items in the work and in the archival inventory (e. g. p. 33, footnote 17, p. 35, footnote 1) and even in the use of the footnotes themselves was imprecise (p. 47,footnote 13).
Also, on page 190, the names of 3 archives are given as sources, when inactuality they are institutions in which these sources are kept and accessed.(The National Archives in Wroclaw is mentioned). On page 9 K. Pudlo informs us that the archival holdings in Wolow were a valuable supplement to other sources (questionnaires re: assimilation). Meanwhile, in this town there were never any archives except those of institutions. Therefore, if the author made use of archives of the town or district, the question remains,why didn't he do the same in other archives of former counties (e. g. in Lubin, Zlotoryja or Sroda Slaska). Also, K. Pudlo didn't make use of very important groupings of archives which explore the problem of Lemko resettlement, namely, those of the Government Repatriation Office (PUR) of the National Archives in Wroclaw or of the Archives of New Records of the Ministry of the Recovered Territories in Warsaw.
It's also a shame that the author didn't make use of the latest work by F. Kusiak regarding the settlement of villages in Lower Silesia during the period from 1945-1949, in which, among others, the settlement of Lemkos within the framework of Akcja Wisla is presented, and in which the goals of the author are attained. 7
Pudlo's work begins with a short chapter devoted pretty much to the ethnogenesis of Lemkos, their culture, history and environment, much of which is supported by existing literature concerning the topic.
Chapter 2 raises the most doubts among readers. K. Pudlo has taken the side of those researchers who maintain that the resettlement of Lemkos in the second quarter of 1947 was the only means of defeating the UPA (Ukrainian Insurgent Army). 8 He then expresses the opinion that a part of the Ukrainian population maintained that the UPA and OUN (Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists) were not active in the Lemko region. One could support any theory with such an enigmatic statement. If the author, however, used questionnaires in his research, then he has to support his perceptions with concrete data. The UPA , in all certainty, was active in Lemkivshchyna. The only questionis on what scale was it active and with how much support of the Lemko people.
The arguments presented by K. Pudlo are not convincing, however, because from the middle of 1946 on, the UPA was in retreat, losing personnel and equipment. Nowhere does the author say how strong support for the Ukrainian nationalist movement (UPA, OUN) was among Lemkos, but in telling about the aid imparted by them, he continually gives examples of activity of Ukrainian underground organizations from all territory inhabited by Ukrainians, including the Lemkos. After resettlement to the USSR in 1945, out of a total of about 500,000 Ukrainians (including about 70,000 Lemkos), there remained in Poland only about 150,000, among them about 30,000 Lemkos (some sources say 50,000). In 1947 in western Lemkivshchyna, only 2 squadrons, 220 fighters strong were active (those of Brodycz and Smirny), but only the latter was a Lemko group. The creation of only 1 squadron among a society numbering over 100,000 (after resettlement 30,000-50,000) people leads one to believe the opposite, namely, that active support among Lemkos for the Ukrainian nationalist movement was not at all that strong. In eastern Lemkivshchyna four squadrons were operating, (those of Lis, Stach, Chrin andBir), however, this region was not their main area of activity. After reorganization only about 200 infantrymen remained in all of Lemkivshchyna. An analysis of losses suffered in the whole of the Polish territory from 1944-1947also indicates a weakening of UPA activity. These losses amounted to: 599 civilians and 1,600 soldiers and workers of the Civil Police and Security Service on the Polish side, while on the Ukrainian side losses mountedto 5,500 lives including civilians. 10
K. Pudlo avoided almost completely, (in contrast to the thesis presented above), the battles fought by Lemkos against the Nazi occupation and for Socialist Poland. There are few articles like the work of J. Bienko concerning the organizing of betraying Polish soldiers to the enemy. 11 In 1939, 1944 and 1945 several thousand Lemkos served in the Polish Army, the Red Army, the Freedom Corps and as Communist partisans. It seems nothing, however,could prevent their resettlement. 12 The reasons for resettlement must be sought elsewhere, though. Namely in the campaign launched by the national government, 13 of which a precursor was the liquidation of Byelo-Russian schools in 1946-1947. Here it's worth noting the statement of Wladyslaw Gomulka, "We want to build a one-nation state," as well as the statement of Boleslaw Bierut, "The Polish nation, as a consequence of the war and territorial changes is transforming itself from a multi-national state to a one-nation state." (quotes by K. Kersten).
The resettlement of Lemkos from April to June of 1947 was the last time that it was possible to do it using the liquidation of the UPA as a pretext, and without fear of its possible armed intervention. K. Pudlo relates the tendencies toward creating a nationalist Polish state (p. 90-91), but fails to connect them with the reasons for resettlement, but only with the difficulties of minority groups to develop their own culture and education.
The author also did not give a complete description of the transports of Lemkos. The attitude of those leading the convoys was a topic of much consternation and T. Kusiak in his work turned his attention to the poor state of health and hygiene of the displaced. 14 The Lemkos remember especially well the labor camp at Jaworzno, in which many of their kin died, detained there without trial, primarily on the basis of unfounded accusations. In reality, this subject was not worked on adequately, but it was not to be dealt with the way that Pudlo did. For the average transplanted Lemko, born after W.W.II, Jaworzno is a symbol of national suffering, just as between the wars, Thalerhof, an Austrian camp, was such a symbol for their fathers.
The third chapter is dedicated to the settlement of Lemkos in Wroclaw province (within the borders set in 1950). According to the author, at that time 3,070 families (13,198 persons) were settled here. Taking into consideration, however, the borders of Wroclaw province from 1948 there were 4,292 families (18,804 persons) settled here according to the state from Sept.-Oct. of 1948. The author doesn't mention that families had to be dispersed according to categories A, B and C, either. 15 But he succeeded in this part of the book in relating accounts of the first years of Lemkos farming in Lower Silesia, the attempts to build a new life for themselves in a new place, all the while stressing that in the perspective of the Lemko settlers their settlement was something temporary. Government help in 1947 should be understood to be symbolic, and data quoted regarding the transfer of foodstuffs and sowing supplies to the settlers, after recounts turned out to be insufficient.
Neither can one agree with the position of the author, who in support of his thesis concerning the positive effects resulting from resettlement,namely the rise in the Lemkos' standard of living and the resulting hesitation to return to the mountains, quotes a very unrepresentative statement by an 18 year old girl who was born in the recovered territories. All the more, since the standard of living of Lemkos inhabiting Lemkivshchyna today is not at all lower than that of those in the western territories of Poland.
In chapter 4 Pudlo analyzed the mutual relations between Poles and Lemkos.The latter, settled in Silesia, not only found a society which had been developing for over 2 years before they arrived, but also found a society full of reluctance and hostility towards the new settlers. The atmosphere of hostility was also often exacerbated by the authorities themselves.16 The stereotype of the "Ukrainian banderovyets" played a significant role here. The author astutely presents instead the process of breakingdown mutual prejudices and hostility. The opinions of the Lemkos regarding specific groups of Poles (of which they spoke most highly of the Great Poles) are especially interesting.
But resettlement of the Lemkos could not lead to a quick loss of their ethnic identity, (something the authorities were counting on). On the contrary, from the moment of their arrival the Lemkos attempted to group themselves into the largest concentrations possible, closed to outsiders. The acceptanceof the maxim, that it's all right to put aside the obligatory norms of morality in dealing with someone of another nationality, that one may arbitrarily displace people by rationalization of a government, had to have negative consequences. 17 This brought about the problems that Lemkos experienced in trying to live harmoniously with a Polish population.

The fifth chapter concerns the relations of Lemkos with the regional administration,political parties and youth groups as well as with the USKT (Ukrainian Social-Cultural Society). The general treatment of this subject matter did not allow the author to take a stand with regard to many significant questions. He is right, writing about the hesitation of Lemkos to participate in the social-political life of the region. Besides many different factors (such as lack of an intelligentsia), this unwillingness also has its historical substantiation. In this century alone any attempts to undertake politicalactivity most times ended with the intervention of the authorities, (Thalerhof, the Lemko Republic, W.W.II, relocations, Jaworzno), and even with death. But, the new generation, having rid itself of its fathers' complexes, is now engaging itself more boldly in social-political action.
Moreover, in this chapter he skipped a very important factor activating Lemko youth and bringing them nearer to their Polish counterparts. Mutual sporting events and the participation in organized sports has led to the breaking down of prejudices. In the same vein, one may have serious reservations regarding the omission of the problem of the relationship of Lemkos to Solidarity (since 1985), a party which contained attractive platforms forethnic minorities.
On the other hand, the author described the activity of Lemkos in the Ukrainian Social-Cultural Society with great detail. In 1954, Lemko activists founded the Ukrainian Cultural-Educational Committee in Wroclaw. Ukrainian-Lemko antagonisms was the reason for the ultimate removal of these people from active participation in the work of the society. But the reasons also lie in the very structure of minority organizations, in their organizational system and organizational dependence. Hence, the statements regarding the undertaking of independent decisions by authorities of the USKT may cause the reader to smile. The author writes on page 111... "the position of the steering committee of the USKT coincides most often with the position of the government". This could have been phrased differently. The position of the government towards ethnic minorities was very intractable, even towards their cultural activities. Therefore, independent decisions bythe USKT in the matters of the founding of a professional theater, a song and dance group, artistic performances or attempts at more extensive announcements of a political nature were really immediately blocked by the authorities.
The sixth chapter concerns schooling for non-Polish nationalities. In this part of the work much has been left unsaid. For example, the author does not inform the reader at all as to the reason that Ukrainian language instruction was first begun in 1956. Wasn't this precisely a result of aspirations to create a one-nation state? The nine year span of a society functioning without its own school system with all certainty played a big role - in a negative sense - in the development of Ukrainian education. The reduction in the number of sites of instruction and in the number of children studying was caused more than anything else by the relationship of the governmentto ethnic minorities. The languages, (Ukrainian, Byelo-Russian, German),were not treated as their mother tongues, hence they were considered elective courses (in practice, unnecessary). This problem would have looked differently, if the parents had been forced to extract their children from a compulsory language course instead of enrolling them in an elective course.
Religious questions were addressed in chapter 7. These have always raised and continue to raise the most emotion among Lemko society. But, at general religious meetings during the years 1947-1950 Lemkos were able to meet and discuss subjects interesting them. The situation of the Orthodox population in terms of satisfying their spiritual needs in their own rite was not at all worse than, but even much better than that of the Greek Catholics. In light of records of the Wroclaw Provincial Office Greek Catholics did not undertake great activity in the establishment of its parishes. Besidesthe arguments quoted by the author, it should be added that a part of the Greek Catholic priesthood joined the ranks of the Roman Catholic clergy or became bi-ritual priests. On the other hand, Orthodox priests entered into the organizing of religious life in 1947. From this angle, the situation of the Orthodox Church was much better, because by June of 1946 the Administration of Orthodox Dioceses in the Recovered Territories had already begun activity in Lower Silesia and by December of 1946 the first parish had been organized in Wroclaw. Besides the generally positive reaction of the Roman Catholicclergy toward the resettled population, there did occur instances of refusal of religious services to Lemkos holding fast to the faith of their ancestors. This was also one of the reasons that Orthodox Lemkos endeavored to start their own parishes.
The author also gives incomplete data regarding the organization of the Orthodox deanery of Wroclaw. The parish in Stodolowice was organized inOctober of 1947, but the first service took place on the 16th of November of that year (Government Archives, Wroclaw Provincial Office VI/686, page47). In Michalowo, the parish was organized in October of 1947 in spite of the negative position of the Provincial Administration (ibid., p. 202).The Orthodox Consistory gave notice of the creation of a parish in nearby Zimna Woda in August of 1947. In spite of negative decisions on the partof the County Administration in Lubin, the Wroclaw Provincial Administration as well as the Dept. of Public Administration of the Recovered Territories, the parish was not dissolved. In 1949, services were conducted in Wilczkowo and finally a parish was established in Malczyce (ibid., VI/771). It is not true that the parish in Michalowo was dissolved in 1967, because it continues to be active to this day and construction of the first Orthodox church in Lower Silesia was undertaken to meet the needs of the faithful. (It is already functioning). Finally, a parish was founded in Glogow. In1986, parishes, including their branches and church buildings were located in the following localities: Wroclaw(2), Glogow, Jelenia Gora, Legnica,Lubin, Malczyce, Michalowo, Olesnica, Rudna, Sambor, Studzionki, Swidnica, Walbrzych, Wolow, Zabkowice, Zimna Woda and Zmigrod.
Neither did Pudlo present correctly the organization of the Ukrainian Catholic Church in Lower Silesia, which renewed its activity after 1956. It was regarded by the government administration as illegal, but it was tolerated. Presently (in 1989), 8 parishes are functioning in Lower Silesia: (Wroclaw1956, Wolow 1957, Legnica 1957, Modla 1957, Zamienice 1976, Lubin 1981, Glogow 1982, and Olawa since 1985). The church owns two church buildings in Wroclaw since 1980 and in Wolow since 1982. In the rest of the parishes services are held in Roman Catholic churches.
The final chapters of the book are devoted to the subjects of marriage, either ethnically mixed or ethnically pure, as well as to that of the return of Lemkos to Lemkivshchyna after 1957. Because the first of these chapters touches solely upon selected questions, not all significant problems were able to be examined there. The problem of Lemkos returning to their native land is more complicated than Pudlo realizes. Above all else, they attempted to return to the villages from which they were expelled. The author does not say how many would be returnees were refused by the authorities, and that without a doubt would have affected the outcome of the study. The table on page 166 suggests that the number of farms made ready for settlement exceeded the number of farms actually settled. In the face of previously presented observations, however, that is not credible. Moreover, Lemkos were primarily returning through their own initiative, having been assured that they would be readily received by the small population of Lemkos left in Lemkivshchyna (e.g. in Kunkova). It is not completely true that Poles left Lemko villages out of concern for their own safety. The example of Kunkova, presented by the author, completely refutes this theory. In the abandoned village after the resettlement of Lemkos to the Gorzow Wielkopolski area the residents of the neighboring village of Odyrne along with other settlers founded a collective geared to the raising of sheep. The venture turned out to be unprofitable. From the moment the Lemkos returned to Kunkova,the settlers returned to their own homesteads, being employed in industry,and returned the farms to their industrious Lemko owners. This was a typical example of taking over land and farms after the liquidation of collectivesand had nothing to do with the pretense of a threat to the local population which had taken over formerly Lemko-owned farms.
Closing statements end the book. The theses contained therein are well known in professional literature and new observations by the author are few in number. I would, however, like to take issue with two conclusions.The author maintains that the Lemkos have already become established and that they have assimilated in Lower Silesia, that they have become autochthonous.This is certainly true, but there continue to be those people who want to return to the mountains. One can't speak, either, of Lemkos having the ability to return to Lemkivshchyna, but deciding to stay in Lower Silesia. Besides, the author has eloquently set forth the argument that not all who stayed in Lower Silesia since 1956 did so voluntarily. The author also tries to answer the question as to what degree the Lemkos have retained their culture and maintains that only some of its elements have been kept. It is well known that the Diaspora is not a suitable environment in which to retain one's culture in its natural form. Its retention was only possible in Lemkivshchyna. On the other hand, it would have been much more interesting to see a comparison as to which ethnic group has retained its culture to the highest degree after resettlement.
The critique of this book can not be one sided. It turns out that the author comes across much stronger in those parts of the book where cultural questions are discussed. However, in discussing issues of social-political nature, he has not made use of already existing, interpretational possibilities. The omission of many accessible sources and literary material, observations made on a basis of limited sources and basing conclusions on material that could be more credible leaves me with a feeling of not being completely satiated after reading this work. It is good that this book has appeared in order to deal with the subject matter of the Lemkos through the years. However, one may have doubts regarding its academic attainment. I think that the author has not completely made use of research opportunities posed before such a significantly attractive subject.
1. The review which is presented was supposed to have been printed in the"Lower Silesian Yearbook" in February of 1989. Because of the fact, however, that the periodical has ceased publication, the article did not appear anywhere. In "Lower Silesian Culture", numbers 2-3, 1989, pages 84-85 my critique of this work appeared. In comparison with the text from 1989 I made only cosmetic changes.
2. Z. Stieber. Dialect of the Lemkos. Phonetics and Phonology, Wroclaw,1982; Lemkos. Catalog of exhibition, edited by A. Kroh, Nowy Sacz, 1984;R. Brykowski, Lemko Wooden Church Architecture in Poland, Slovakia andTranscarpathian Ukraine, Wroclaw, 1986; The Lemkos. Culture-Art-Language. Materials from the symposium organized by the Mountain Tourist Commission(ZG PTTK), Sanok, Sept. 21-24, 1983, Warsaw-Krakow, 1987.
3. Besides the author of this book, Lemko subject matter after W.W.II was undertaken primarily by A. Kwilecki (before 1989). (K. Pudlo, Lemkos...page8, note 6).
4. K. Pudlo, Lemko Settlement in Lower Silesia during the Years 1947-1969, in Lower Silesian Village, 1970, XX; also, Lemkos in Lower Silesia (1947-1982),"Lower Silesian Yearbook", 1985, IX; also, Ukrainian Social-Cultural Society (USKT), "Lower Silesian Culture", 1987.
5. In 1946, having previously belonged to the province of Wroclaw, Zielona Gora county was annexed to Poznan province, and the Upper Sorbian county of Zary was annexed to Wroclaw province. On January 1, 1950 the following counties were annexed to Zielona Gora province: Kozuchow, Zagan, Glogow and Szprotawa. Brzesc and Namyslow were annexed to Opole province. (see K. Orzechowski, The territory of Wroclaw province in the history of Silesia, "Sobotka", 1970, page 346).
6. Since 1975, the Government County Archives no longer exist. Its holdings were taken over by the National Archives. The name of the former Provincial Government Archives is mistakenly quoted. The author calls them "PanstwoweArchiwum Wojewodzkie" as opposed to "Wojewodzkie Archiwum Panstwowe" (page 33 and after), even though the name by which he referred to this institution was never used. Since January 1, 1984 the name "Archiwum Panstwowe we Wroclawiu" has been employed.
7. F. Kusiak, Village settlement in the central and northern counties of Lower Silesia 1945-1949, Wroclaw, 1982, in which he refers to the Lemkos by the term "domestic migrants", as though not perceiving the compulsory character of resettlement. Pudlo rightly applies the term resettled or displaced to the Lemkos (page 10).
8. According to the stories of many Lemko witnesses, Soviet agitators were already speaking about resettlement to the western territories in 1945, on occasion of the population exchange between Poland and the USSR. The resettlement was also one of the questions touched upon in the party programs of the London camp. (Polish-Ukrainian Relations 1917-1947. From tragedy to co-operation, 1990).
10. In this part of the work one ought to consider it a serious mistake to skip the basic position (until recently), regarding the activity of the UPA: A. B. Szczesniak, W. L. Szota, "Road to Nowhere. The activity of the OUN and its liquidation in Poland," Warsaw, 1973. See also its review: A. Shtendera, "Studies on the Activity of the UPA in the Polish People's Republic", Suchasnist, Munich, summer of 1985, 1-2, pages 125-144. "W Zamian" the author quotes four stories. Shtendera maintains that Smirny organized his fighting group in the force of a platoon only after the resettlement of the Lemkos. It was active on both sides of the Polish-Czechoslovak border until the autumn of 1948 (page 137).
11. He wrote among other things: "...Lemkos were known above all for their absolute integrity...whoever put his fate in the hands of a Lemko leader would reach his intended goal with absolute certainty... Instances of turning in ones comrades to the enemy occurred much more rarely here than in those places where there was an exclusively Polish element." (Tygodnik Powszechny, April 14, 1985).
12. How then are we to interpret the words from the aforementioned article by Bienko: "But wherever they are - let it be recognized - that their often heroic conduct, fighting together with the Poles against the Nazi invaders, has not been forgotten."
13. K. Kersten, "People on the Byways. Concerning the resettlement of populations in Poland 1939-1948, "Res Publica", 4/1987, pages54-63. It results also from the opinions of county officials, e.g. in an explanation of an official from Sroda Slaska from August of 1947. "TheLemkos are presently disoriented. However, by reason of their dispersion throughout the county and because they lack the church and a Ukrainian intelligentsia they will in fact become Polonized, all the more so because many of them are Poles at heart who have been stolen from the Polish nation by Greek Catholic priests through rebaptism in the Eastern rite, especially before 1939 when Polish officials flirted with Lemko regionalism as well as during the time of Nazi occupation, when in Krynica an entire staff of Ukrainian intelligentsia spent its time. (Government Archives in Wroclaw,Wroclaw Provincial Office, VI/686, page 47).
14. T Kusiak, op. cit. page 128.
15. Ibid. page 124.
16. "It wasn't enough that a lot of unprobable trash was spread about us, but at official meetings held before our arrival in Michalowo our soon to be neighbors were warned that half-wild Lemkos would soon be settling here, who are the wildest tribe of the Ukrainian nation. And that the Lemkos robbed and murdered peaceful people in the Carpathian forests and for that reason the army had to resettle them... For a long time we didn't know about that. Only after some time they told us about it, because after all people have to somehow live with each other, because they need each other. (S. Madzelan, "The Taste of Fate", Nowy Sacz, 1986. page 4).
17. K. Kersten. op. cit. page 64.

Translated in November 1996 by RichardTrojanowski. Fox Lake, IL 60041

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