"The Lemkos of Poland"
Articles and Essays

Edited by Paul Best, Jaroslaw Moklak



This book deals with the East Slavic population which until 1947 was the majority in the mountains of today's Southeast Poland.
These articles and essays give a broad overview of the Lemko question as it exists at the turn of the millennium.
The editors anticipate that the next book in this series War and Occupation in the Lemko Region in WWII will appear in 2002.
Paul Best is Professor of Eurasian Studies in the Political Science Department of Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, USA. He has been collecting materials on nationality questions and specifically the Lemkos since 1965.
Jaroslaw Moklak, Doctor of History, is employed in the Institute of History of the 600 year old Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Poland. He has been studying the history of Ukraine in the 19th and 20th centuries, Polish-Ukrainian Relations and the history of the Lemko Region since 1985.

The Lemkos of Poland Articles and Essays
edited by
Paul Best
Political Science Department
Southern Connecticut State University
New Haven, Connecticut
U.S.A.
and
Jaroslaw Moklak East European History Department
History Institute
Jagiellonian University
Cracow, Poland

Copyright by the Carpatho-Slavic Studies Group, 2000.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by
any electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval
systems without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer
who may quote brief passages in a review.

Carpatho-Slavic Studies Group
c/o Paul Best
Political Science Department
Southern Connecticut State University
New Haven, Connecticut 06515
USA Tel: 203-392-5660, Fax: 203-392-5670, E-mail: Best@SCSU.CTStateU.edu
Published by the Carpatho-Slavic Studies Group
and the Historia Jagellonica Press, with the assistance of Southern Connecticut State University,
INTER-ED,INC., New Haven, Connecticut, USA and Institute of History, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland.
On front cover Church in Tylicz
ISBN 83-912018-3-X Cracow and New Haven, 2000
Tirage: 500 copies, June 2000

The editors would like to dedicate this book to the memories of Ryszard Luzny (1927-1998), Roman Reinfuss (1910-1998), and Bohdan Struminski (1930-1998) leading authorities in the field of East Slavic and Lemko Studies all of who passed away within months of each other in 1998.
Doctor Luzny was a member of the International Association of Ukrainianists and Ukrainian Academy of Arts and Sciences in New York. He wrote a monograph about the Kyiv Mohyla Academy The Kyiv Mohyla Academy and Polish Literature: from the history of Polish-East Slavic cultural collections in the 17 and 18th centuries as well as Old Rus Literature.
Ryszard Luzny was Professor of Slavic studies at the Jagiellonian University of Cracow and the Catholic University of Lublin where he taught East Slavic studies.
Doctor Reinfuss, Professor of Ethnography at the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, was one of the first to do detailed scientific examination of the Lemko Region. His doctoral dissertation, written in the 1930s, Lemkowie jako grupa. etnograficzna (The Lemkos as an Ethnographic; Group) is a classic and fundamental work about the special case of the Lemko people.
Doctor Bohdan Struminski completed his doctoral and habitation studies at the University of Warsaw in the field of Slavic linguistics. He was for many years a scholarly worker at the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. Besides the article in this volume about the Lemko Language, he edited the two-volume work, Lemkivshchyna: Zemlya, Liudi, Istoriya, Kultura (The Lemko Region: Land, People, History, Culture). He finished volume 7 of the Hrushevsky translation project just before he died.

Table of Conntents

PREFACE ........................................ 7
Paul J. Best
An Introduction to Lemko Studies ........................... 11

SECTION I

Volume I Carpatho-Slavic Studies, papers delivered at the IV World Congress for Central and East European Studies, Harrogate, England 21-26 July 1990
and related materials
Zdzislaw Konieczny
Materials in the Polish State Archives in Przemysl Concerning the Lemkos ...... 21
Jaroslaw Moklak
Political Orientations Among the Lemkos in the Inter-War Period (1918-1938): An Outline ................................ 27
Andrzej Zieba
Poland and Political Life in Carpatho-Rus and Among Carpatho-Rusyns in Emigration in North America: 1918-1939 ..................... 33
Leszek Mnich The Secrets of the Village of Wolosate ......................... 41
Wieslaw Wojcik The Lemko Question on the Pages of Polish "Country Knowledge" [Krajoznawstwo] Publications ............................. 47
Paul J. Best Moscophilism Among the Lemko Population in the Twentieth Century ....... 55
Paul J. Best The Lemko-Rusniak Mountaineers And The National Question In People's Poland .................................... 61

SECTION II

Volume 2 Carpatho-Slavic Studies, papers delivered at the conference on The Carpatho-Rusyns of Poland, Cracow, Poland July 2-24 1992
Paul J. Best The Carpatho-Rusyn Question in Poland ....................... 73
Michal Parczewski The Beginnings of the East Slavic-West Slavic Differentiation in the Carpathians ....................................... 83
Zofia Szanter From Where Did The Lemkos Come? ......................... 89
Bohdan Struminski The origin of the Lemko dialect ........................... 101
Jaroslaw Moklak The Phenomenon of The Expansion of Orthodoxy in the Greek Catholic Diocese of Przemysl: Missionary Activity of the Orthodox Church, 1918-1939 ....................................... 107
Anna Krochmal The Greek Catholic Church And Religious "Sects" In The Lemko Region, 1918-1939 ....................................... 119
Susyn Y. Mihalasky Lemkos in the Polish Press 1987-1992 ....................... 129
Zofia Szanter An Essay on the Carpathian Church in the Family of European Churches .... 143
Helena Duc-Fajfer Contemporary Lemko poetry and the problem of so-called "Lemko Separatism" ...................................... 151

SECTION III

Volume 3 Carpatho-Slavic Studies, papers from the V World Congress for Central and East European Studies, Warsaw, Poland 6-11 August 1995 and related materials
Jaroslaw Moklak Lemko - a historical-ethnographic idea ...................... 179
Susyn Y. Mihalasky Ethnonational Orientation Among Lemkos In Poland: The Results of a Survey ....................................... 181
Oleksandr Zaitsev The Lemko Problem as seen in the activities of Ukrainian Political Parties in the 1920s and 1930s ............................. 189
Agnieszka Korniejenko Literature of the Lemko Cultural Sphere ...................... 197
Bernadetta Wojtowicz The Role of Religion in the Development of National Consciousness Among the Lemkos .................................. 207
Paul J. Best The Apostolic Administration Of The Lemko Region 1934-1944 ......... 219
Paul Best The Rusyn Movement, A Ten Year Retrospective 1989-1999 ........ ... .............. 225
Paul Best Resources for Lemko Studies, English Language Print and Non-print Materials ................. 233


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Date Posted: February 29, 2001
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