VASILI ROMANOVICH VAVRIK

Fragments from the English translation of the book A Brief Outline of Galician-Rusyn Literature (Kratki Ocherk Halisko-Russkoi pis'mennosti).The book was written by the late Vasili Romanovich Vavrik and published by Peter S. Hardy of Trumbull, CT. We are hopeful that our younger generation of readers who cannot read Rusyn will nonetheless avail themselves of this opportunity to get acquainted with the Galician men of letters. The book contains brief biographical sketches of many of the litterateurs of the past 600 years who, against tremendous odds, kept alive the fires in the breasts of the Galician people with the age-old idea of an autonomous Carpathian Rus'.

A Brief Outline of Galician-Rusyn Literature ("Kratki Ocherk Halitsko-Russkoi Pis'mennosti") was written by Vasili Romanovich Vavrik and published in Rusyn by the Carpatho-Rusyn Literary Association through the generosity of Mr. Peter S. Hardy of Trumbull, Conn. It was printed in Louvain, Belgium in 1973. The foreword to the book, consisting of a short biography of Vasili Rornanovich Vavrik, was written in 1970 by R. D. Mirovich, who passed away in 1971.
The book consists of three sections, dedicated to:


1. the Galician-Rusyn literature of the princely period,
2. the period of the Polish panshchina and
3. the prolonged bondage of the Galician-Rusyn people under Austro-Hungarian rule.

The biography of the author follows:
Vasili Romanovich Vavrik, the author, was born in 1889 of a peasant family in Yasnishche, Brodsky uezd (county), in Galician Rus. After completing the German gymnasium, he matriculated at Lvov University. The eruption of the war in 1914 cut short his education in the juridical curriculum of the university. He was almost immediately arrested by the Austrian authorities as a Russophile. He spent much time during WW I in the concentration camps of Terezin and Talerhof, where he dedicated himself to the writing of poetry depicting the life of bondage of the Carpatho-Rusyn people under the Austrian monarchy. He also edited underground circulars and pamphlets in which he exposed atrocities in the concentration camps. The war over, he utilized the first years to the pursuit of his interrupted education. In 1926 he completed the faculty of philosophy at Charles University in Prague with the degree of doctor of Slavic philology. Returning to his native Lviv, he was forced by circumstances to enter Lviv University where he again completed the same curriculum and received the degree of doctor of Slavic philology for the second time. In the same year Vasili Romanovich dedicated himself to the service of his people as a writer, becoming the secretary of the renowned Stavropighion and a scientific collaborator of the Galician-Rusyn Matitsa. With the takeover of Lviv by the Soviets after WW II, he became the senior scientific collaborator of the Historical Museum where he remained until his retirement in 1956.
The writing diapason of Vasili Romanovich was quite prolific. He was a scholar, poet, writer, publicist, and with all this a fiery patriot and a populist.His scholarly, philological and historical works are many,the most important of which were: Yakov Fedorovich Holovatsky, His Activities and Significance in Galician-Rusyn Literature (1925), The Stavropighial Brotherhood of Lviv(1926), The Lviv Stavropighion in the Light of the Researches Conducted by I. I. Sharanevich (1927), Denis Iv. Zubritsky and His Works Concerning the Stavropighial Institute (1928), The Basic Features of the Activities of I. I. Sharanevich (1929), Galician-Rusyn Literature in the "Song of Igor's Campaign" (1930), Materials Relating to the History of the Lviv Synod in 1891(i931), The Elders and Members of the Stavropighial Institute(1932), The Rusyn Trinity (Vagilevich, Holovatsky,Shashkevich) 1933, The Life and Works of Ivan Nikolaevich Dalibora-Vagilevich(1934), "The Song of Igor's Campaign" in the Galician Dialect (1937), The Members of the Stavropighion for the Past 350 Years (1937),Galician Rus to Pushkin(1937), The School and College of the Lviv Stavropighion (1938) and The Trial of Gogol (1959).
A special place in the works of Vasili Romanovich Vavrik is taken up by the martyrology of Carpatho-Rusyn patriots during World War I (1914-1918).Here one must mention his collaboration in the publication of the Talerhof Almanac(Lviv, 1934-1934) and the reprinting of Philip Svistun's War Transgressions of the Hapsburg Monarchy undertaken by Peter S. Hardy (Trumbull, Conn,1964);his monograph Talerhof (1934) and Terezin and Talerhof-the 50th Anniversary of the Tragedy of the Galician-Rusyn People (1966). Besides these, he wrote a number of separate works on this same theme, artistically refined, such as the novels: In the Vortex (1926), The Outcast (1927);such stories as:Kalinin Srub (1926), Ataman (1932), Masha (1933), Ursha,the story of the execution of a Galician in the Alps (1928), Trial and Execution, the story of the execution of a peasant in Matsaiev of the Zborovsky region by German-Ukrainian terrorists (manuscript). The Moralist, a story of the life and exploits of V. F. Marushchak (manuscript). In the Ring of Bayonets (1928),In the Crossfire, in 5 parts (1929-1938). A Victim of Austrian Terror-Father Ignaty Hudima (1930); dramas and dramatic sketches:One Bride, Two Bridegrooms(1928), Talerhof (1933), The Rusyn Partisans in the Carpathians (manuscript);poems (18): Anastasia Chagrovna (manuscript).The Baptism of the Rus (1938),A Poem on the "Song of Igor's Campaign'' and many others. He wrote popular scholarly sketches of Hrihory Semenovich Malets (1936), Dmitri Andreevich Markov (1938), Nikolai Pavlovich Hlebovitsky (manuscript), National-Slavic Galician Rus (manuscript).
On the theme of "Talerhof" Vavrik wrote many articles of a publicist nature in the Galician- Rusyn press, as well as on contemporary subjects.His poetic works are many. His lyrical poems, permeated with passion and patriotism and love for his native Carpathians, are scattered in all Carpatho-Rusyn publications in the Old Country and in the western world. Four complete collections were published between 1921 and 1925. A separate branch of his works is devoted to the literary portraits of the most eminent cultural activists of Galician Rus, which makes up the contents of the present volume:A Brief Outline of Galician-Rusyn Literature.
Vasili Romanovich Vavrik died in Lviv July 5, 1970 at the age of 81.

/Excerpts/

PERESTOROHA
The anonymous author of this book made his goal the forewarning of his countrymen of the violence that would be inflicted upon them by the Polish Roman Catholic clergy and the shliakhta because of their nationality, faith and, traditions.This book is an important religious, political and polemical document against the Union of Brest of 1596 and its consequences. It was written in 1605.
With sorrow and pain of heart this passionate defender of the Eastern Orthodox Church writes of the downfall of the Galician-Rusyn principality, the destruction of Rusyn books by the Roman Catholic Dominican fanatics,the lack of education and enlightenment in Galician Rus' and the leaving of the Rusyn people to the unbridled passions of the shliakhta.
LITERATURE: A. S. Petrushevich: Perestoroha, ("Forewarning"),Lviv,1867; V. Zavitkevich: Palinodiya "Palinode"), Warsaw, 1883; K .Studensky: Perestoroha-rus'ki pamyatnik pochatka XVII vika ("Forewarning-Rusyn Memorial of the Beginning of the XVII Century''), Lviv, 1895; M. Vozniak:Pro avtorstvo Perestorohi ("Concerning the Authorship of Perestoroha"),Lviv,1940.

IVAN VYSHENSKY (1550-1625)
Ivan Vyshensky was born in the village of Vyshni, Lviv oblast', about 1550. Amonastic and a strict ascetic, he was an expert on the customs and rites of the people and also on the Church Slavonic language. Ivan loved to travel. For a while he dwelled in the Manyavsky hermitage with Job Kniahinitsky, the famous igumen (abbot), ascetic and antagonist of the Church union with Rome.While on Mount Athos Ivan Vyshensky ordered that he be "buried alive"in a cave on the twisting and jagged cliff banks of the Aegean Sea. From this abode he mercilessly castigated the initiators of the Church union:Michael Rogoza, the Kievan and Galician metropolitan; Ipatiy Potiy, the bishop of Brest, and Cyril Terletsky, the bishop of Lutsk, all of whom betrayed the Orthodox faith. Abandoning their own people to the mercy of fate, they themselves became Polish feudal lords for the sake of personal gain and a life of luxury and debauchery.
This Athenian anchorite wrote about 20 brilliant messages which distinguished themselves by their liveliness, originality, picturesque ness, patriotism, their captivating eloquence, high soaring style, witty dialectics and deep sensitivity to the fate of his native people in southwestern Rus'.
In his Oblicheniye diavolamiroderzhtsa ("Expose of the Devil-Sovereign of the Universe''), he subjected the pope and his legions of Jesuits and Dominican Friars to cutting criticism; in his Poslaniye k mitropolitu i epishopam, priniavshim uniyu ("Message to the Metropolitan and Bishops Who Accepted the Union"), he unmercifully lashes out at the apostates from the faith of their fathers and forefathers.
A very strong literary style prevailed in Ivan Vyshensky's writings which produced a powerful impression on the simple people and lower clergy in his native Rus'. He died in 1625.
LITERATURE: A. N. Pyshin, Istoriya Slavianskikh literator ("History of Slavonic Litterateurs"), St. Petersburg, 1883; Ivan Franko, Ivan Vyshenskyi yoho tvory ("Ivan Vyshensky and His Works"), Lviv,1895; I.P. Eryomin, Ivan Vyshensky: Tvory ("Ivan Vyshensky: His Works"),Kiev,1959.

JOB ZHELIEZO (1550-1651)
Job Zheliezo was born in 1550 to a peasant family in the village of Pokutye in the Carpathian Mountains. Like Job Kniahinitsky, the igumen of the Manyavsky hermitage and Ivan of Vyshni (Vyshensky), he was a strict ascetic. In his many sermons and instructions to his native people, he repudiated the Church union with Rome.
From Pokutye Job Zheliezo migrated to Volyn'. He was the rector of the Dubensky monastery for more than 20 years. About 1618 he transferred his activities to the famous Pochayev monastery. Here he dug out a cave for himself in the cliffs where he eventually died at the age of 101. In the Pochayev monastery he is listed in the ranks of the blessed. He left an autobiography of himself entitled Kniga Iova Zhelieza, igumena Pochayevskogo, ego rukoyu pisanaya ("The Book of Job Zheliezo, Written by His Own Hand").
LITERATURE: P. N. Batiushkov, Volyn' 1891: T. Teodorovich, Pochayevskaya Liavra ("The Lavra of Pochayev"), Warsaw, 1930; K. Znosko, ZhitiyeIova, igumena Pochayevskogo ("The Life of Job, Igumen of Pochayev"),Warsaw,1932.

JOB BORETSKY (1560-1631)
Job Boretsky was born in 1560 in Borch, Peremyshl uezd, in the family of a wealthy citizen named Matthew. He studied in foreign colleges where he learned the Latin and Greek tongues. Returning to his native land, he became a teacher and the rector of the Greco-Latin-Slovenian brother hood school in Lviv.
He was ordained into the priest hood in Kiev. In 1615 he became the chief rector of the Kievan brotherhood school. In 1619 both he and his wife accepted the monastic vows. Eventually, Job was elected igumen of the Mikhailovsky monastery in Kiev. A year later he was consecrated and occupied the cathedra of the Kievan and Galician metropolitanate through the cooperation of hetman Peter Konashevich Sahaidachny.
Metropolitan Job Boretsky was a distinguished expert on the works of the Holy Fathers. Respected for his piety, charity and erudition, he was equally well known for his fiery defense of Orthodoxy against the Church union with Rome.He wrote several remarkable polemical works: Dialog o pravoslavnoi vere("Dialogue on the Orthodox Faith"), Ostrog, 1606; Setovaniye o blagochestii ("Grieving Over Piety"), 1628-instructions to the Orthodox faithful how to behave in times of persecution; Apologiya("Apology"),Kiev, 1628 - a work demolishing the Apology of the deserter Molety Smotritsky.
LITERATURE: I. I. Malshevsky, Zapadnaya Rus' v borbe za veru i narodnost'("Western Rus' in its Struggle for Its Faith and Nationality"),Moscow, 1903.

ZAKHARIYA KOPYSTENSKY (1627)
The ancient Rusyn clan of Kopystensky (Kopystensky, Kopystiansky) originated in the village of Kopystno in the Dobromil' uezd (county) in Galician Rus'. Their gens branched out extensively throughout Carpathian Rus'. A great number of priests emanated from it. Michael Kopystensky, of the Leliv coat of arms,was the bishop of Peremyshl (1591-1610) who, with Gedeon, bishop of Lviv,and the Stavropighial Brotherhood of Lviv, were the only authoritative persons to firmly reject the Brest Church Union with Rome (1596).
According to the Talerhof Almanac, published in 1924 by the Stavropighial Institute in Lviv, a number of the members of this family were arrested and incarcerated in the concentration camp of Talerhof by the Austrian authorities at the outbreak of World War I for the "crime" of being "Russophiles."Among those listed were the following: Priests- Evgeni (from Berehove),Roman, Orest, Roman S. (from Barych), Roman (from Hrabovtsy), Roman (from Hrihorov), Stefan Kornilovich, Michael, a lawyer and Theofil Antonovich, a judge. Among the more recent members of the clan were the priest Gregory Kopystiansky in Snitnitsa and Judge I. Kopystinsky in Sambor. Adrian V. Kopystiansky (1883-1938) was an eminent historian and prolific writer on historical topics.
There are no precise data to delineate the origin of Zakhariya Kopystensky. It is known only that he studied and then taught in the Brotherhood School in Lviv and that he kept company in the erudite circle of the litterateurs of Galician Rus': Elisei Pletenetsky, Job Boretsky, Isaiah Kopinsky, Lavrenty Zizany Tustanovsky, Kirill Stavrovetsky, Stepan Zizany Tustanovsky and Pamva Berynda,the elite of the times. It is also known that he had met up with the anchorites Ivan Vyshensky and Job Kniahinitsky.
In 1616 Zakhariya K. left the Carpathians and settled in Kiev where he published the book Knigu o vere ("A Book About Faith") under the pseudonym"Azariya" (1619) and wrote a talented polemical treatise entitled Palinodia (1622) against the Brest Church Union. He died in 1627.

PAMVA-PAVEL BERYNDA (+1632)
Pamva-Pavel Berynda came to Lviv from Moldavia and entered the Brotherhood School. Besides his school studies, he occupied himself passionately with typographical matters. Bishop Gedeon Balaban commissioned him to proofread books that were published in Stiatin and Krylos near Galich.
Berynda buried himself in his work and in the study of literature and thewritingof poetry. For 30 years he kept busy compiling Lavrenty Zizany's work: Leksikon sloveno rosski i imen tolkovaniye ("Sloveno-Rusyn Lexicon and Commentary''),Kiev, 1627. Berynda was a self-made scholar.His works are distinguished by copious reading and deep erudition. The year of his birth is unknown.He died in Kiev in 1632 as a "protosingel of the Jerusalem Patriarchal throne and a prototypograph of the Rusyn Church.''
LITERATURE: A. S. Petrushevich: Dissertatio de microrussicis versio nibussacra escripturae (Lviv, 1888).

ANTONY STEPANOVICH PETRUSHEVICH (1821- 1913)
Tile name of Antony Stepanovich Petrushevich is one of the most famous in all of Carpathian Rus'. He was born in the village of Dobriany in the Stryjsky uezd. He studied in Stryj and Lviv. As a theological student,he was a notary in the office of the metropolitan and worked in the library and archives.At the council of Rusyn scholars, he headed the historical section.
Antony Stepanovich Petrushevich left behind many scholarly works in history,philology,literature and ethnography for which he earned membership in the Rusyn Archeological Society of Moscow, the Slavonic Society of Kiev,the Society of History and Antiquity of Odessa, the Academy of Science of Bucharest and membership in all Galician-Rusyn educational and scholarly institutions. He also held a doctorate from Kiev University. From his works we will mention only the most important: Rus' i Pol'shcha ("Rus' and Poland") (1849), Istukan, otkrytiy v Zbruche (1851), Bylo li dva Galicha?("Were There Two Cities of Galich?") (1865), L'vovskaya letopis' ("The Lviv Chronicle") (l867), Volynsko-galitskaya letopis' ("TheVolynian-Galician Chronicle")(1872), Kazn' Ivana Podkovy ("The Execution of Ivan Podkova")(1875), Akty Stavropigiiskogo Bratstva("Acts of the Stavropighial Society") (1879), O podlozhnykh starocheskikh pamyatnikakh ("Concerning the Spurious Old Czech Memorials")(1879), Slovo o polku Igoreve ("AWord About the Lay of the Host of Igor") (1887), a six-volume Svodnaya galitsko-russkaya letopis' ("Concordance of the Galician- Rusyn Chronicle")(1874-1897).
A. S. Petrushevich gathered together an invaluable stock of erudite and educational manuscripts and books for the metropolitan's library and the Rusyn National Home in Lviv. He also donated much material to the Rusyn Academy of Science in St. Petersburg.
LITERATURE: Zbornik Galitsko-russkoi Matitsy ("Anthology of the Galician-Rusyn Matitsa")(1887); F. F. Aristov: Karpato-russkiye pisateli (Carpatho-Rusyn Writers")(1916).

ANTONY STEPANOVICH PETRUSHEVICH (1821-1913)
The name of Antony Stepanovich Petrushevich is one of the most famous in all of Carpathian Rus'. He was born In the village of Dobriany In the Stryjsky uezd. He studied In Stryj and Lviv. As a theological student, he was a notary in the office of the metropolitan and worked in the library and archives. At the council of Rusyn scholars, he headed the historical section.
Antony Stepanovich Petrushevich left behind many scholarly works in history,philology,literature and ethnography for which he earned membership in the Rusyn Archeological Society of Moscow, the Slavonic Society of Kiev,the Society of History and Antiquity of Odessa, the Academy of Science of Bucharest and membership in all Galician-Rusyn educational and scholarly institutions. He also held a doctorate from Kiev University.
From his works we will mention only the most important: Rus' i Polshcha,("Rus' and Poland") (1849), Istukan, otkrytiy v Zbruche (1851),Bylo li dva Galicha? ("Were There Two Cities of Galich?") (1865),L'vovskaya letopis' ("The Lviv Chronicle") (1867), Volynsko-galitskaya letopis'("The Volynian-Galician Chronicle") (1872), Kazn' Ivana Podkovy("The execution of Ivan Podkova") (1875), Akty Stavropigiiskogo Bratstva"Acts of the Stavropighial Society") (1879), O podlozhnykh starocheskikh pamyatnikakh "Concerning the Spurious Old Czech Memorials")(1879), Slovo o polku Igoreve "A Word About the lay of the Host of Igor")(1887). a six-volume Svodnaya galitsko-russkaya letopis' "Concordance of the Galician-Rusyn Chronicle") (1874-1897).
A. S. Petrushevich gathered together an invaluable stock of erudite and educational manuscripts and books for the metropolitan's library and the Rusyn National Home in Lviv. He also donated much material to the Rusyn Academy of Science in St. Petersburg.
LITERATURE: Zbornik Galitsko-russkoi Matitsy "Anthology of the Galician-Rusyn Matitsa")(1887); F. F. Aristov: Karpato-russkiye pisateli Carpatho-Rusyn Writers")(1916).



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