Introduction - II
* * *

Before the foundation of the General Seminary in L'viv in 1783, most of the clergy were formed with only sparse education, which they were given at home by their priest fathers -usually a scanty minimum.
Empress Maria Theresa of Austria in 1775 founded a central seminary in Vienna called the "Barbareum" for 46 Byzantine (Greek) Catholic students in the empire, and it lasted until 1784. For students from Halychyna there were places for 6 from L'viv, 6 from Peremyshl' and 2 Basilians25.
When the General Seminary was established in Lviv on June 30, 1783 in the former Dominican monastery, 26 for Ukrainian students of Halychyna there were assigned 57, then 70, and finally 60 places, of which 20 were allotted for the Eparchy of Peremyshl'. The period of study was 6 years, of which the last year was to be done in the student's own eparchial seminary, in the presbiterial house. There they had to study homiletics and pastoral theology, and learn to celebrate the liturgical services. The time of study was shortened in 1790 to 4 years. The presbiterial house was founded in Peremyshl' by the government on August 14, 1786 in the former Carmelite monastery. There were never very many students in the presbiterial house. For example there were these students in the following years: 27

1787 2 1789 5 1791 7
1788 11 1790 9 1792 5

The courses of theology were in the Latin language. For Ukrainian students who did not know Latin, in 1787 was opened the <<Studium Ruthenum>> with courses in Ukrainian, which lasted until 1803, when Ukrainian students could understand Latin better. The General Seminary was closed in 1790, but at the request of the bishops, it lasted for Ukrainian students until l893, until the Peremyshl' and Stanyslaviv eparchies opened their own seminanes28. Previous to 2893, the seminary in Peremyshl' had taken care of only 4th year theology students, the younger ones attending the General Seminary. The students from Stanyslaviv shared the Archeparchial Seminary of L'viv until January, 190729.

Two hundred florins were assigned for the support of the students. If there was not enough place in the seminary building, some students willing to study theology could get permission to live outside and study as externists, frequenting all courses and church services like the students living in the seminary. For their support they received 150 florins paid monthly by the rector, under whose jurisdiction they were all the time30.
The priests were supposed to continue their religious education after ordination. To assure that this was done, four written trimestral examinations were introduced in the deaneries and it was the dean's duty to report to the chancery the names of those who presented themselves for the examinations and the result of the examinations. In addition, catechetical courses were organized for the clergy31.
Study in the seminaries was not a free gift from the government - neither in Vienna nor in L'viv. The bishops had to pay for each student and the money had to be collected from their clergy. If not enough could be collected, the government paid the difference from the Religious Fund. After ordination or leaving his study, the student had to repay the amount used for him to the Religious Fund32.
It was the merit of the government that it forced the bishops to be concerned with the education of their clergy and forbade them to ordain candidates without education. It also obliged the clergy to deliver sermons and to teach catechism.
It was decided on June 17, 1786 that the monthly income of each pastor was to be 300 florins, and that of assistants 150 florins. If this sum was unobtainable from regular sources, the difference would be supplied from the Religious Fund. For retired and disabled priests 200 florins were assigned from the Religious Fund. The Religious Fund was established by Joseph II from the sale of confiscated church properties in Halychyna. mostly of Latin rite monasteries and of some Ukrainian monasteries. Its combined worth was 27,814.003 florins, which sum was located in banks at 5% interest33. For the needs of the eparchy, the bishops collected from the parishes, with the help of the dean's, an annual cathedraticum which was assigned by the eparchial consistory. It was to be paid in florins by the deaneries for example:
 

1. Balyhorod 439     4. Drohobych 818
2. Bircha 444     5. Sjan'ik 428
3. Dobromyl' 509     6. Zhovkva 314
* * *

The Ukrainian Catholic population continued to grow during the years 1828-1939, the period covered in this work. The growth was in spite of the conditions under which the people lived. Epidemics spread throughout the region periodically especially virulently in the years 1831-1832 and in 1847. The nature of typhus, typhoid fever, cholera and "recurrent fever" were practically unknown at that time and the people had no idea how these fevers were spread or how to protect themselves against them. Hospital care was almost non-existent until the mid nineteenth century.
A considerable number of Ukrainian's were farmers, and were at the mercy, not only of crop failure, locust hordes, blights, oppression from landlords, etc., but also had to face the enmity and distrust of their neighbors - of the Poles because they were too "eastern" and of the Russians because they were too "western". The Ukrainian desire for self determination and independence was a constant source of irritation to both Poland and Russia and over the centuries the people have paid an enormous price for this desire. The "ethnic cleansing" which took place after each of the two World Wars are only too well known in the history of the Ukrainian people, and were not the only occasions of conflict.

By the end of the 19th century, the Ukrainian's had begun to emigrate to other countries in the New World, and in the years up to 1914, massive emigrations had taken place - to Canada, the United States, Brazil and Argentina. After World War II, another wave of emigration's took place, this time also to western Europeans countries and to Australia. Those who remained on their native soil faced the possibility of being transported by force to Siberia or other places in the Soviet Union, or, for those in the Polish part of the eparchy, of being deported to the Soviet Union, to the western provinces of Poland or to the former German territories given to Poland in 1944 according to the Treaty of Yalta.

In 1944, the western part of the Eparchy of Peremyshl' and the whole Apostolic Administration of Lemkivshchyna came under Polish domination, and the eastern part came under the Soviets. On February 4, 1949, the Archbishop of Warsaw, Stefan Cardinal Wyszynski, was nominated by Rome as Special Delegate for Eastern Rite Catholics in Poland. He directed religious matters for the Ukrainians through vicar generals appointed by him Father Vasyl' Hrynyk, who held the position until his death on May 31, 1977. then Father Stefan Dzubyna, first as Vicar General and then as "Vicar Capitularis" until 1981. On September 18, 1981 the Archbishop of Warsaw, Josyf Cardinal Glemp, was appointed as Ordinary for Greek Catholics in Poland, and he appointed two vicars general - Father Ivan Martynjak for the 2 southern deaneries of Peremyshl' and Wroclaw, and Father Josafat Romanyk, OSBM, for the 2 northern deaneries of Koszalin and Olsztyn.
Father Martynjak, who had already been consecrated as Auxiliary Bishop for Eastern Rite Catholics in Poland on October 16, 1989 in Czestochowa, was nominated as Eparch of Peremyshl' on January 16, 1991 and the Eparchy was reestablished. He was enthroned on April 13, 1991 in Peremyshl'.
Ukrainians are now established in eparchies in Western Europe, North and South America and Australia. Many of the first priests came from the Eparchy of Peremyshl' to administer to the religious needs of the early Ukrainian Catholic emigrants. The Ukrainian Catholic Church survived both underground in their own lands, and in Diaspora where they now have l5 eparchies. Now that Ukraine is independent, the future is in the hands of God, the strong faith of the people, and the responsibility of its ecclesiastical leadership. That will be for future historians to relate...

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