The story placed in Rymanów Zdrój just before II World War and in early years of German occupation. Associations from childhood are interleaved with fiction and show last years of the then Rymanów's community. Authorised reprint from the book "The castle in Carpathia Mountains - stories and tales", Czytelnik, Warsaw 1973, 2nd edition.

Perhaps not everybody knows that the courier track to Budapest also passed through Rymanów Zdrój, A beautiful page of history was written by the dwellers of Posada Górna who hełped the couriers and co-operated with them. Here we remember .Fran-ciszka Różowicz, nicknamed "Babcia" (Granny). She co-operated with the courier Jan Lozański, nicknamed "Orzeł" (Eagle), who freąuentły enjoyed the hospitality of "Granny". The article tells the story of people full of sacrifice who during World War II had to replace the technical means of communication. The Polish youth kept contacts with the emigrant centers in France and later in England. The young people were unyielding in their fight for independence and self-sacrificing beyond any measure. Girls and boys, the soldiers of the Home Army and their activity wrote a beautiful page in the history of Poland.

During World War II Rymanów was occupied by the Third Reich. In 1940 the Germans started building a camp on the town area which was first intended for a regiment of the Wehrmacht artillery and later, after the German invasion of the Soviet Union, it was changed into a POW camp for Soviet prisoners of war. More than a dozen thousands of the Red Army officers and soldiers went through the camp imprisoned in inhumane conditions. Keeping them crowded, without elementary sanitary facilities and without medical care and, first of all, heavy and slave labor as well as famine resulted in high death rate among the prisoners. The occasional help from the local residents given at the risk of their lives could not improve conditions of tortured people. Any attempts of escape were punished by the nazis with the highest cruelty. The Poles who helped the refugees were also punished mercilessly. In the late autumn an epidemics of typhus decimated the prisoners. As many as 100 people died every day. Their bodies were buried in collective graves on the neighboring cemetery. As a result of the epidemics which lasted until February 1942 about 8 thousand prisoners died as well as many residents of Rymanów and neighbouring villages. In the spring of 1943 2,5 thousand prisoners remained and a part of them joined the general Vlasov army which collaborated with the nazis. The rest of the prisoners were transported to a similar camp in Olchowiec or to the Reich. In 1943 the camp was liquidated with the help of a group of Jews who were brought here at that time. There are graves of more than 10 thousand Soviet prisoners of war, killed or those who died of typhus, on the local cemetery which is the only trace of that painful episode of the war history of Rymanów.

This article presents a selected scope of issues related to the names of places in the vicinity of Rymanów Zdrój based on the results of the author's own toponymical research. The semantic classification of the names and the problems with the spelling of the original Lemko (Ruthenian or Ukrainian ethnic group) names on the maps of the area in question were discussed on selected examples. In the last chapter some selected toponyms were presented in a broader way taking into account their etymology (derivation), their history and age.

Dr Ignacy Potocki, an engineer of balneotechniques, a grandson of the founders of Rymanów Zdrój, studied in Belgium and had periods of special training in health resorts abroad, co-manager of the health resort in Rymanów Zdrój between the World Wars; after World War II he got a doctor's degree in the Acaderny of Mining and Metallurgy in Kraków. Until World War II he was a member of the Board of the Union of Polish Health Resorts. He was active in the Union of Armed Fighting Home Army and from 1941 he was wanted by Gestapo. Until the end of the war he hid in the Solska Forests where he arranged the escape of 92 French soldiers from the extermination camp in Zwierzyniec. After the War, in spite of many paradoxical problems with the authorities of that time, he became the Director of Carpathian Health Resorts located in Krynica. He was a co-originator of an Institute of Balneology in Szczawno Zdrój, later he became the chief inspector of springs and deposits of the health and social security department, Hę was a representative of Poland in the International Federation of Health Resorts located in Zurich, Hę co-operated with PAN (Polish Academy of Sciences) as an advisor on Carpathian matters. He lectured on balneo-techniąues in the Wrocław Technical University. This paper is a supplement of an earlier study of memoirs of the grandson of the Rymanów resort founders which ap-peared in the Ist volume of the "Rymanów Zdrój Yearly" entitled "A short journey to the sources of Rymanów Zdrój" It is a collection of Dr Ignacy Potocki's loose memories connected with his childhood, tragic events of World War II and paradoxes of the beginnings of the Polish People's Republic's history.

Work distinct in Contest on Associations Connected with Rymanów Zdrój. Author describes her visits in Rymanów's health resort, from the first one, in August 1939, through that during years of German occupation, finishing nowadays. Associations concer-ning the II World War are extremely dramatic, showing poverty, degradation and martyrology of Rymanów's community.


Work distinct in Contest on Associations Connected with Rymanów Zdrój. Author as a child joined Rymanów's Lwów's Holiday Camp two times - in 1936 and 1937. Interesting associations are interleaved with texts of camp songs and camp poetry, The story transfers us to hardly remembered time just before II World War, showing little piece of the then society and community.


In 1996 during the repairs of the Greek Catholic cemeteries in the Rymanów Community Stanisław Kryciński started his co-operation with the Rymanów Zdrój Friends Association. After his many-years-long activity in the Bieszczady Mountains Stanisław Kryciński with a group of volunteers "moved" to the Low Beskid Mountains. During the first camp in August 1996 three necropolises in Królik Wołoski, Deszno and Bałucianka, and the folłowing year in Wisłoczek and Tarnawka were restored. The works were financially supported by the Community of Rymanów, the Society for Prevention of Ancient Monuments from Warsaw and individual sponsors.

Because of its mineral springs and climate features Rymanów Zdrój is eagerly visited by people who need cure. The illnesses of their bodies are treated here but they may spend their time here in a broader way since there is something for the mind - the beauty of the surrounding nature. In the first volume of the yearly I presented the plants growing in Rymanów Zdrój and its vicinity and preserved as species, in the second one I drew the reader's attention to many species of ordinary, common plants. The third meeting is devoted to the birds. I present the species which I count the most interesting and easy to recognise as well. All year long we can admire great tit-mouse, marsh-titmouse, or blue titmouse, nuthatch -a strange bird, which moves with its head down, and also jay, magpie, kingfisher, woodpeckers and mallard floating on the Tabor river. With a bit of luck you can watch a golden eagle! When the spring comes there appear starling, white wagtail and blue-headed wagtail, white stork and sometimes a black one, a common heron. The sight of these birds and their sounds, make a walk through the forest more pleasant and give you unforgettable experiences.


In his article August Bocheński conveys us back into the seventies of our century. At that time with the help of a group of students from the Kraków Technical University he drew up an architectural inventory of the unique in Poland urban complex of Jaśliska. Once being a town - today a village of Jaśliska was founded (located) in 4th century on an important commercial track and in 15th and 16th centuries it experienced a boom. Jaśliska lost its urban rights between the World Wars. In the seventies the old timber buildings of the old town still existed. The documentation made under the scientific supervision of August Bocheński is the only record of the past splendor of Jaśliska. Today the unique building complex of the market square has been seriously damaged. The article is illustrated by the drawings made years ago.

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Originally Composed: April 25th, 2003
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