The Lemko Region, 1939-1947 War, Occupation and Deportation

Edited by Paul Best, Jaroslaw Moklak

limited edition


Paul Best
Political Science Department
Southern Connecticut State University
New Haven, Connecticut
U.S.A.

and
Jaroslaw Moklak
East European History Department
History Institute
Jagiellonian University
Cracow, Poland


(Volume 4 of Carpatho-Slavic Studies)
Copyright © by the Carpatho-Slavic Studies Group, 2002
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any
electronic or mechanical means including information storage and retrieval systems
without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who
may quote brief passages in a review.
Carpatho-Slavic Studies Group
c/o Paul J. Best
Political Science Department
Southern Connecticut State University
New Haven, Connecticut 06515
U.S.A. Tel: 203-392-5660, Fax: 203-392-5670, Email: bestpl@southernct.edu
Published by the Carpatho-SIavic Studies Group
and the Historia Iagellonica Press, with the assistance of Southern Connecticut State University,
Inter-Ed, Inc., and the Institute of History, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland.
On front cover - Bohdan Kruk "Melodia" health inspector, the "Ukrainian Red Cross", in the middle, with a group of UPA soldiers, the Lemko Region, spring, 1946. From UPA Warfare in Ukraine: Strategical, Tactical and Organizational Problems of Ukrainian Resistance in World War II, New York, 1972.
ISBN 83-88737-90-2 Cracow and New Haven, 2002
Tirage: 500 copies, September 2002


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Table of Contents
Preface.............................................................................................................................................7
Paul Best & Jaroslaw Moklak

Introduction

1. Communal strife and ethnic cleansing on the lands of the Second Polish Republic
During World War II was there a Lemko exception? Introductory Comments.............................11
Paul Best
2. The Political Situation of the Ruthenians of the Lemko Region before the outbreak
of WWII — historical conditions...................................,.,.,.............................................................19
Jaroslaw Moklak

Nationality policy and resettlement

3. The Position Taken by Provincial Authorities of the Second Polish Republic
Concerning the Lemko Question, towards the end of the Inter-war Period...................................25
Wojciech Rojek
4. The Nationality Policy of Poland towards Ukrainians before WWII.........................................39
Mykola Kucherepa
5. Soviet Policy concerning resettlement of the Ukrainian inhabitants of Polish Lands
during and after WWII (1939-1946)..............................................................................................51
Grzegorz Mazur
6. Polish pre-war legislation in regard to the post-war deportation of the Lemkos (1944-1946)...................................................................................................................................75
Eugeniusz Misilo
7. Lemkos and the Resettlement Action to Soviet Ukraine (1944-1946)........................................ 83
Roman Drozd
8. The Deportation of Ukrainians from the Lemko Region, 1944-1947.........................................93
Yurii Kramar
9. The Consequences of the Deportation of Lemkos and the process of Polish -Ukrainian Reconciliation
Michal Wawrzonek
10. The Resettlement of Post-Lemko Land in Cracow Province after 1945................................. 109
Czeslaw Brzoza

Resistance Movements

11. The Polish Underground in the Lemko Region during WWII................................................119
Ihor Ilyushyn
12. Meeting with Lemko leaders who had been arrested by the Gestapo and who were
in prison in Jaslo in 1942
.............................................................................................................127
Marian Zgorniak
13. The UFA in the Lemko Region...............................................................................................131
Grzegorz Motyka
14. The Resettlement of Lemkos to the USSR and the activities of the UPA in the Lemko
Region in the light of documents found in the [Polish] State Archives in Rzeszow..........................13'7
Jan Pisulinski
15. The Lemkos in the Ukrainian National Movement During and After WWII..........................149
Peter Potichnyj
16. The Ukrainian Insurgent Army in the Lemko Region............................................................. 171
Bogdan Horbal

The Religious Question

17. The Greek Catholic Church in the Lemko Region in WWII and its Liquidation (1939-1947)..................................................................................................................................183
Stanislaw Stepen
18. The Liquidation of the Structure of the Greek Catholic Church in the Lemko Region...............799
Mariusz Rynca
19. Religious Life and Interfaith Relations in the Lemko Region in the First Half of
the 20th Century (to 1947)............................................................................................................ 207
Jaroslaw Czuchta

Society and Education

20. The Lemko Village, 1939-1947 (the Village of Mszana, Krosno County)..............................217
Maria Starchak-Vavrychyn
21. What Lemkos say is "their World": its image, losses and needs........................................... 225
Natalia Klashtorna
22. The Ukrainian School System in the Lemko Region: 1939-1944...........................................229
Oleh Pavlyshyn

The Presov Region of Slovakia

23. The Post-war Development of Lemkos of the Presov Region: 1945-1947............................. 235
Mykola Mushynka
24. Rusins in Slovakia and the Church Question After WWII, 1945-1947................................... 245
Stanislav Konecny

Sources and Historiography

25. Lemkos and the Lemko Region During and After WWII in the Research of Ukrainian and Polish Scholars....................................................................................................255
Yevhen Sinkevych
26. Resources regarding Church and Social-Political Activities in the Lemko Region (1939-1947). Retained in the Polish State Archives.....................................................................257
Anna Krochmal

Additional Information (found at the back of this volume): Map 1 - Carpathian area in Europe; Map 2 - Carpathian Slavic Homeland; Map 3 - Lemko Region; Map 4 - Carpathian Euroregion; registration form

This is the fourth volume of papers dealing with the Lemko region. The first two volumes were published in plain paper and later were typeset and bound with volume three in book form in the year 2000 as the Lemkos of Poland: Articles and Essays, a volume available from the publishers of this book, see outside back cover.
This current book contains selected papers from a conference about "the Lemko Region, 1939-1947 War, Occupation and Deportation" which was held at the Polonia Institute, Przegorzaly-Cracow, Poland, May 28-30, 2001, plus two other papers. The conference was held under the auspices of the Institute of History of the Jagiellonian University and the Carpatho-Slavic Studies Group of New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. The first of the two other papers is from the'very first Carpatho-Slavic conference in 1988, that is, Peter J. Potichnyj's "The Lemko s in the Ukrainian National Movement..." The second additional paper is Bogdan Horbal's counter argument to Potichnyj, "The Ukrainian Insurgent Army in the Lemko Region," which we publish with permission, in translation, from the book Lemkowie i Lemkoznawstwo (Lemkos and Lemko Studies) which was printed in Cracow in 1997,
These papers are the result of nearly 15 years of discussions held among scholars who are interested in that area of the Carpathian Mountains now or formerly inhabited by East Slavs. In this case, East Slavic is defined as those people whose religious foundation is Byzantine rite Christianity and who speak an East Slavic language and use the Cyrillic alphabet, to write that language, people whose culture is part of East Europe, as opposed to Western European people of a Roman Christian background (whether Roman Catholic, or in protest against it - Protestant) and who use the Roman alphabet.
In the 21
st century as the European Union expands, soon to perhaps include Poland and Slovakia, and the concept of a "Europe of the Regions" grows, it is appropriate to pay more attention to the "Carpathian Euroregion" (see map 4 at the end of this book). The heart of this new Euroregion is the Carpathian Slavic homeland, (see also maps 1, 2, and 3). For more about this question, consult chapter 7, "Regionalism and Regionaliza-tion" in Andres Rodriques-Pose, The European Union: Economy, Society and. Polity (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).
A Note About Terminology and Transliteration
Many readers of this volume may be aware that there is much acrimonious controversy about the proper terminology for a East Slavic population that has at various times, in various circumstances, and using several alphabets, been called: Lemkos, Boikos, Hutsuls, Lemaki, Rusnaks, Rusins, Rusyns, Carpatho-Rusyns, Carpatho-Ukrainians, and Carpatho-Russians. Thus, we use as neutral a term as possible, "Carpatho-Slavic", in our group's name and in our publications.
For the sake of convenience we pluralize Lemko as Lemkos rather than Lemki, Lemkowie, etc., and we've settled on the use of the Lemko Region, instead of Lemkovyna (the local term), or the more cumbersome Lemkivscyna (German), Lemkowszcyzna (Polish) or Lemkivshchyna (Ukrainian). According to standard scholarly usage, we use
Lviv (Ukrainian), the current, name of that city, rather than Lwow (Polish), Lvov (Russian) or Lemberg (German).
Equally of interest/conflict is the use of the various "phil" (Latin, meaning "love") words. We have tried to adhere to the following definitions (but we have not changed authors' usages):
Russophil (with a double "s", that is "ss")/Moscophil (used inter-changeably), these people believe there is a common East Slavic (Russian) nation, with regional and dialectical differences, which ought to be ruled from a single center (Moscow, or 18
th and 19th centuries, St. Petersburg). Sometimes referred to as the Vielyka Rus - Great Rus (Russian) idea.
Rusophil (one "s"), also known as Starorus (Old Rus), a person who feels there is a single common East Slavic (Rus) culture/nationality, with regional and dialectical differences. Not always clearly distinguishable from a Russophil/Moscophil and also using the term Great Rus—Vielyka Rus.
Ukrainophil - people oriented towards Kyiv who feel there is a clearly separate Mala Rus - little Rus - Ukraine which ought to be totally independent from a Moscow centered state.
Rusynophil, a term little used in this book, rose in the 20
th century in reference to the Carpathian Rus activists who have said that the Lemkos, the Slovak Lemkos and the Transcarpathian population form some sort of a separate east Slavic ethnos.
We have not made editorial adjustments to authors' usages or views, thus they should be questioned about who is a Rusophil/Ukrainophil/Rusynophil or in what category the Lemkos ought to be classified - not the editors,
As the reader may be aware, there are several versions of the Cyrillic alphabet in use in and around the area discussed in this text and even these have evolved over the years. Transliterating the variations of Cyrillic into the Roman alphabet presents some real difficulties since there may already be a transliteration in use in the Polish version of the Roman alphabet as is true for a German variant or a Slovak one. Since adherents to one another transliteration can never be satisfied if the alternate is selected for use (for example, should it be Rusyn or Rusin), we will do the best we can and make transliterations according to the current Library of Congress and Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute usages as rendered for standard English pronunciation, thus Kyiv instead of Kiev for the capital of Ukraine. If a standard Roman spelling already exists for a place, then that was selected, thus Gorlice (Poland) instead of transliterated Ukrainian Horlyci or Przemysl instead Peremyshl or if for a name Szeptycki instead of Sheptytsky or Kocylowski instead of Kotsylovsky or Masciuch instead of Mastsiukh, et al.
The English language reader who is interested in details about place names and locations should consult the appendices of one of the editions (published in the 1990s) of Carpatho-Rusyns and their Descendants in North America by Paul Robert Magocsi (Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press) for a concordance of place names in various alphabets and spellings. Also of interest is the 80cm x 100cm bi-lingual (Rusyn-English) map of the same author, "Carpatho-Rusyn Settlement at the onset of the 20
th century with additional data from 1881 and 1806" (Carpatho-Rusyn Research Center, 1996, 1998). The reverse side of that map contains a complete listing of all place names.
This book, the fourth volume of Carpatho-Slavic Studies, was compiled, translated and edited for the sole purpose of disseminating information about Carpatho-Slavs. Material appearing in squaring brackets [ ] was added by the editors.
Any comments, remarks, additional information, etc., would be gratefully received.
Paul Best
Jaroslaw Moklak Editors
Translator's Note to English Language Edition
Papers by Messieurs Brzoza, Czuchta, Drozd, Kramar, Mazur, Misilo, Moklak, Motyka, Pisulinski, Rojek, Rynca, Stepien, Wawrzonek, Zgorniak, and Ms. Krochmal were translated from Polish; those of Messiers Ilyushyn, Kucherepa, Mushynka, Pavlyshyn, Sinkevych, Ms. Starchak-Vavrychyn and Ms. Klashtorna were translated from Ukrainian; while Mr. Konecny's paper was translated from Slovak.
The translation of these papers was not "word for word" but rather a "free" translation. An attempt was made to render each paper as understandable as possible for a reader of the English language.
Footnotes from the original papers have been inserted but not translated since the reader would have to understand the original language (Polish, Ukrainian, Slovak, etc.) in order to make use of them.
The reader is also reminded that is it not possible to have a full picture of the Central and East European Slavic lands without knowing some of the languages of that area. English language publications can only present a partial picture.
Paul Best

Dedication
This volume is dedicated to all those who suffered and those who lost their lives
in the Lemko Region during the years 1939-1947

Acknowledgments
Assistance from the Faculty Development Fund of the Office of Academic Affairs of Southern Connecticut State University and from the Dean of Arts and Sciences is gratefully acknowledged. We are especially appreciative of the secretarial services provided by Jean Polka of the Political Science Department in the preparation of this manuscript.
We also wish to express our gratitude to Prof. Michal Chorosnicki of the Institute of Political Sciences and International Relations of the Jagiellonian University of Cracow and Gatto, Inc. of Cracow for taking care of the financial arrangements for the 2001 conference and to the Institute of History of that University for gaining us the use of University facilities.



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